Essays

Transcendentalism: In The 19th Century

Transcendentalism revealed itself in the beginning of the 19th century with talented writers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Walt Whitman. These well-educated men brought such ideas as individualism, imagination, and nature to life through their works. Many writers in the transcendentalism period included such characteristics in their pieces. Some of the characteristics are spiritual well being, individualism, nature, and imagination. There are some that make these characteristics more evident than others are such as, Walden by Henry David Thoreau, I Sit and Look Out by Walt…

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Essays

The relation of consciousness to the material world

The relation of consciousness to the material world is puzzle, which has its origin in dualism, a philosophy of mind which posits their fundamental separation. Dualism, in turn, has its roots in folk wisdom. The belief that humans are more than bodies and that there is something in human nature that survives bodily death has its origins in prehistory; it becomes explicit in the mythology of Ancient Egypt and Assyria and was formulated into a philosophical position in the Platonic thought of Ancient Greece. But the contemporary view that the…

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Essays

Personal Educational Philosophy

Many different ideas of the correct educational philosophy exist. Highly acclaimed psychologists and educators developed these varying philosophies. Each of these philosophies have their strengths and weaknesses and have their positives and negatives in different situations. It is our job as educators to sift through this list of philosophies to find our own style and philosophy. We must research the pros and cons of each philosophy and pick and choose which sections of each idea to take out and make our own. Our job is also to familiarize ourselves with…

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Essays

Berkeley’s powerful reasons for thinking that things other than minds have no absolute existence

5. Explain and assess Berkeley’s most powerful reasons for thinking that things other than minds have no absolute existence altogether apart from or independent of minds. Metaphysics is the study of the ultimate nature of reality and deals with what is truly real as oppose to what appears to be real. Berkeley is an idealist who believes that things other than minds have no absolute existence altogether apart from or independent of minds. He has several arguments but only the resemblance argument and the inconceivability argument will be discussed, as…

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Essays

The Disproof (and proof) of Everything

Since the beginning of time, men (I’m speaking of the human race, this is not sexist in anyway because women are included in this too) have pondered our existence and purpose, as well as the nature of the world we live in. This is perhaps the single most time consuming thought we ever have for most people live their entire lifetimes without finding the answer or even coming close to one. I myself have pondered this question for most of my life, until recently when I used some odd (but…

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Essays

The Will to Power by Nietzsche

In the Will to Power, Nietzsche claims:The will to power interprets (-it is a question of interpretation when an organ is constructed): it defines limits, determines degrees, variations of power. Mere variations of power could not feel themselves to be such: there must be present something that wants to grow and interprets the value of whatever else wants to grow. Equal in that- In fact, interpretation is itself a means of becoming master of something. The organic process constantly presupposes interpretations. ) Part I of this paper unpacks this passage…

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Essays

Christian Belief in a Postmodern World: The Full Wealth of Conviction

Others have tried to do what Diogenes Allen, Professor of Philosophy at Princeton Theological Seminary, does in his book but none with his breadth or effectiveness. That is, others have attempted to exploit for theism’s benefit the hard times now befalling the modern world’s emphasis on scientific reasoning and pure rationality, which for quite a while had placed Christianity (and religious belief in general) on the intellectual and cultural defensive. Many of these earlier attempts made use of the Wittgensteinian concepts of “form of life” or “language game” to show…

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Essays

Monotheism vs. Polytheism: The problems with one Deity

The philosophical investigation of the nature and grounds of religious beliefs is one of the oldest and most persistent areas of philosophical endeavor. Religious belief and practice give rise to a variety of philosophical issues, posing epistemological questions about the justification of religious belief, metaphysical questions about the nature of God and his/her existence in plural or singular form(s), and ethical questions about the relation of God to moral values. So many are the intersecting major philosophical concerns in the religious arena, and so immediate is the interest, that philosophy…

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Essays

The depths of the cave

The use of caves in mythology to depict darkness and abandonment has branded it as a symbol of chaos. From this perception other associations are made which connect the cave to prejudices, malevolent spirits, burial sites, sadness, resurrection and intimacy. It is a world to which only few venture, and yet its mysticism has attracted the interest of philosophers, religious figures and thinkers throughout history. To Plato, the cave represents the confusion between reality and falsehood. Individuals chained deep within the recesses of the cave mistake their shadows for physical…

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Essays

The Philosophes

During the eighteenth century, ideas of reform started in France and spread through Europe. This period is referred to as The Age of Enlightenment. The Enlightenment carried the idea that economic change and political reform were possible. People started to think that they could use their own intellect to challenge the intellectual authority of tradition and the Christian past. The people who wrote for change and reform were called the philosophes. They wrote hoping to bring reform to religion, political thought, society, government, and the economy. Thanks to the print…

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Essays

Critical Analysis on the Metaphysics of St. Thomas Aquinas

Metaphysics is the philosophical study whose object is to determine the real nature of thingsto determine the meaning, structure, and principles of whatever is insofar as it is. Although this study is popularly conceived as referring to anything excessively subtle and highly theoretical and although it has been subjected to many criticisms, it is presented by metaphysicians as the most fundamental and most comprehensive of inquiries, inasmuch as it is concerned with reality as a whole. It is the heart of philosophy rooted in the ancient Greeks, especially Plato and…

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Essays

Transcendentalism – a modern philosophy

Mankind has lost its place at the center of Gods universe. Now, when you watch the weather, or plants growing, or someone suddenly die, what you feel is obnoxious bafflement. In the past, you might have said God was responsible or the devil… Definitions of the universe based on speculation or on scriptural faith are no longer automatically accepted… You would have looked out on this vast and undefined universe in wouldve hought, as did the thinkers of that day, that we needed a method of conscious-building. (James Redfield Celestine…

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Essays

David Hume Philosophy

According to Hume, what is the justest and most plausible objection against a considerable part of metaphysics (1, p. 5)? According to Hume justice and plausible objective to metaphysics is that its not a proper science. Hume claims that metaphysics raises from unnecessary human effort and make you think of such abstract ideas that they seem inaccessible to fully understand. Hume even speaks of metaphysics as a cover to protect weaknesses. What general maxim does Hume state in II of Enquiry? Explain in detail one of the two arguments Hume…

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Essays

Meditations by Marcus Aurelius

Even today, Meditations by Marcus Aurelius is read by every class from kings to common people. The book is a universal classic, meaning it can be related to at any time, by anyone. The philosophies included in his book have spanned the centuries, and Meditations remains to be one of the most influential books ever written. Marcus Aurelius was born on April 20, 121 AD into a family of royalty. His uncle and adoptive father, Antoninus Pius, was the emperor of Rome. Aurelius, too, was trained from birth to be…

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Essays

Our Free Will

We ought then regard the present state of the universe as the effect of its previous state and the cause of the one which is to follow. An intelligence knowing at a given instant of time all the forces operating in nature, as well as the position at that instant of all things of which the universe consists, would be able to comprehend the motions of the largest bodies in the universe and those of the smallest atoms in a single formula – provided that it was sufficiently powerful to…

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Essays

The Categorical Imperative Of Immanuel Kants Philosophy

What would you do if you saw a little old lady with a cane walking slowly across a busy street without remembering to look both ways? Most people would answer that they would run out into the street to save her. However, why would these people do this? The rescuer may have not had any relation whatsoever to the little old lady, yet they still decide to risk their life for her. Was it because of basic, natural instinct? Did the rescuer just instantly react to what he/she saw and…

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Essays

Sam Vaknin’s Psychology, Philosophy, Economics and Foreign Affairs Web Sites

Neonates have no psychology. If operated upon, for instance, they are not supposed to show signs of trauma later on in life. Birth, according to this school of thought is of no psychological consequence to the newborn baby. It is immeasurably more important to his “primary caregiver” (mother) and to her supporters (read: father and other members of the family). It is through them that the baby is, supposedly, effected. This effect is evident in his (I will use the male form only for convenience’s sake) ability to bond. The…

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Essays

An Essay on Chan

This essay will attempt to answer questions coming from the Bernard Faure text assigned in class. The questions are as follows: How does Hu Shihs approach to Chan differ from D. T. Suzukis? Why was the scholarship of the Japanese on Zen not objective? What does Faure mean by the teleological fallacy? What does he mean by the two alternative approaches he suggests: structural analysis and hermeneutics? How does Hu Shihs approach to Chan differ form D. T. Suzukis? To answer this we must first recognize that Hu Shih emphasizes…

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Essays

Descartes On Metaphysics

In these writings, he ultimately hopes to achieve absolute certainty about the nature of everything including God, the physical world, and himself. It is only with a clear and distinct knowledge of such things that he can then begin understand his true reality. In order to acquire absolutely certainty, Descartes must first lay a complete foundation of integrity on which to build up his knowledge. The technique he uses to lay this base is doubt. If any belief can be doubted it is not certain, therefore making unusable as a…

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Essays

Modernity and Nietzche

Throughout many centuries philosophers have tried to explain the nature of reality and the order that exists within the universe around us. The purpose of this paper is to first trace the developments that led up to modernity. Next I will react to the claim made by Fredrick Nietzsche that God is dead from a Biblical perspective. Philosophers have attempted to answer that question of what reality is and how to answer the questions that everyone faced. The first philosopher Thales held that water was the source of life and…

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