Essays

Numerous conflicts in Africa

This research is conducted on the conflict management& resolution techniques of Organization of African Union in comparison to African Union commission. Its aims are describing and analyzing the different methods &techniques of these two institutions adopted to obvert& resolve conflict . Besides the research aimed to suggest on the peace keeping & peace building mechanism of these institutions in comparison to one another. Statement of the problem; Numerous conflicts in Africa, among the worst in world history, had been seen. Particularly after the end of cold war the scourge of violence has shown remarkable augmentation.

Mean while international involvement to resolve Africa problems became least due to; insufficient political will of the international community, multiplicity of African conflicts, extended responsibility of international institutions, the setbacks it encounter (1993 in Somalia) are some of the factors. Presence of many ethnic groups & nationalities exceedingly contributed for the mushrooming of ethnic &other inter state conflict in the continent. Border conflict which is a colonial heritage ravaged the continent for a long period of time. Objective

The basic objectives of this paper are: To show the importance of having regional mechanism for conflict prevention, management, & resolving as well as maintaining ,promotion of peace& security as well as stability on the continent. To identify similarity & differences of OAU &AU conflict management mechanism To analyze their fragile side and sturdy side in order to suggest other possible means of forestalling conflict & establishing sustainable peace in the continent. Significance of the study This research is significant in three ways.

Preliminary it serves as a guide on haw important it is having regional arrangements on the maintenance of international peace & security. Secondly, the evaluation of their techniques can clearly show as where the blunder was committed by the institutions, and thirdly it tells as haw to restructure in the direction of improving the mechanisms. Besides it can be used by concerned bodies as groundwork for further study. Limitations Among many limitations that I faced during my research the inaccessibility of archive materials & individuals has above reaching impact on the research .

Until now many documents are exclusives for such kinds of studies. The short period of the AU life span doesnt permit as to make deep evaluation on its performance. Never the less we have tried our greatest endeavor to fill the gapes from other sources & techniques. Methods We employed primary courses such as referring the protocol of the establishment of Au &the protocol of the peace &Security Council of the AU &the constitution of the African Union. Books on conflict &conflict resolution are widely used during the research . Internet sources as well as policy documents were our other target during the research.

Background Africa is made up of many list developed countries. It is a place for many conflicting factors. There are many factors to make the continent the arena for so many wrest conflicts in history. The artificial boundaries devised many of the African countries is one major factor for intense &numerous inter- state conflicts in Africa. Secondly, the existence of difference economic inequalities& socio economic declines side by side with economic regressions are major factors for intense inert state as well as intra state conflicts.

Thirdly, absence of national state with the exception of Swaziland, Somalia, Lesotho, &Tunisia is one factor that precipitates conflict. Besides conflict over the definition and implication of self administration caused the most exhausting & extravagant civil wars in the continent. Demand of the majority for democratic representation is also another factor that precipitates internal conflict. The best example is the case of Eritrean succession war the so called thirty years war of Africa that took lasted for 30 years [1962-1992].

However, acute nationalism ? nic conflicts are spreading at an alarming rate. Fourthly, ideological &socio political deference among African countries during the cold war period affected their relations negatively. Some even drown to deep conflict. The Ethio- Somalia war of 1977-78 had a touch of this factor in addition to the irredentist action of Somalia. Fifth, religious difference& ethnic diversity inside &among African countries is the deadly dynamic for copious inter state and intra state conflicts.

In other words ethnic based conflicts & assertion of an ethnic group either minority or majority for political & economic benefits. The case of the republic of Sudan, Algeria, Nigeria, Congo, Rwanda etc is the best examples. Sixth, irredentist claims occasions over a portion of territory which is inhabited by kin of neighboring state in some coursed disastrous conflict. Seventh, the so called silent warfare; when citizens felt that they are marginalized by the state or assumed the stat reached to the point of dictatorship they avoid participation that leads to discontenting & possibly to violence.

In other words hate the ruling regime in a silent way. Seventh, the wars& internal power straggle of neighboring countries affects African countries. Immigrant pressure &illicit traffic of weapons affects the political stability of some African countries. Cases in point are Zaire vs. Chad, Rwanda Vs Burundi. The last but not the list we can mention as a factor for conflict is absence of a strong & efficient national organization that could predict possible conflicts &eradicate possible confrontations.

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